⚟ Autonomous Vehicle Tech Skills & Training


The global automated/autonomous vehicle (AV) industry CAGR through 2025 is projected at 40% growth to top $557 billion, with automobile and maritime applications taking the lion's share. Similar to advances in the drone/UAV and robotics industries, the autonomous vehicle industry uses advanced sensors for data collection and big datasets for environment perception and analysis. Specifically, HD RGB mapping, lidar point clouds, sensor fusion, and AI/ML methods are common across these industries. Also see EV Tech Skills for the associated electric vechicle and charging infrastructure systems.

As with all Industry 4.0 technologies, there exists a vast shortage of qualified and experienced workers. Couple that with the fact that these technologies are continously advancing, often at an accelerated rate, and you have a situation where workforce skilling, reskilling, upskilling is paramount and neverending. Four-year and even 2-year degree programs at universities and vocational schools may be too long and expensive for many to obtain the skills needed.

AV Subsystem Technicians

Sensors - cleaning and static/dynamic calibration - RGB cameras, Radar, Lidar, Ultrasonic, Odometric
Localization equipment - IMU, GPS/GNSS units
Computing equipment - Industrial-grade computer w/GPUs
Drive Controllers - PID/MP controllers, throttle, brake, steering
Buses - CAN/Can-FD/Ethernet bus
Networking - V2X/Cloud connectivity
Software - ROS (Workspaces, Nodes), OpenCV, CUDA, Python, C++, Gazebo
Simulation/Test equipment


AV Perception Data Processing

HD Maps
Lidar Point Clouds - classification, semantic segmentation, cleaning
Sensor Fusion - Extended Kalman Filters (EKF), Unscented Filters
Particle Filters
Lane detection and tracking
Object detection and tracking
Traffic sign classification
Traffic light state
SLAM - Grid FASTSLAM, Graph SLAM, RTAB Map
Path Planning and Navigation - BFS, A*


AV Telemetry/Communications

Edge computing - micro data centers
Remote network monitoring
C-V2X (5G)


Vehicle Automation Upgrade (Human to Automated

Sensor package - RGB cameras, Lidar, Radar, GPR, ultrasonic, wheel encoders
Vehicle control units
Actuators - steering ring, brake, accelerator
Data loggers
Remote command and control unit (semi-automated) Electrical interface unit


AV Certification & Training Programs

Self-Driving Cars Certification - University of Toronto/Coursera
Self Driving Car Engineer Nanodegree - Udacity
Flying Car Engineer Nanodegree - Udacity
Sensor Fusion Engineer Nanodegree - Udacity
Complete Self-Driving Car Course - Udemy
Deep Learning for Self-Driving Cars - MIT


Test Equipment

Mixed signal oscilloscopes (MSO)
Mixed domain oscilloscopes (MDO)
Arbitary Waveform Generators (AWG)


AV Miscellaneous

Autonomous Vehicle Operator License 1 (AVOL 1)
HD mapping (freelance/contract)


Driverless Vehicle Laws

No federal law in the U.S. but most states have their own legislation. At the Federal level, there is H.R.3388 - 115th Congress - Safely Ensuring Lives Future Deployment and Research In Vehicle Evolution Act or the SELF DRIVE Act.

State Status Legislation
Alabama allows truck platoons SB 125
Alaska - -
Arizona - -
Arkansas in testing phase HB 1754
California in testing phase AB 87, AB 1184
Colorado allows autonomous cars SB 213
Connecticut study phase SB 260
D.C. in study phase DC B22-0901
Delaware
Florida study phase HB 7027
Georgia allows truck platoons & driverless cars HB 472, SB 219
Hawaii
Idaho no -
Illinois confusing HB 791
Indiana allow truck platoons HB 1290
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky allows truck platoons SB 116
Lousiana allows truck platoons HB 308
Maine endless study phase HB 1204
Maryland yes Md. Agriculture Code Ann. § 14-101
Massachusetts yes Mass. Gen. Laws. Ann. 128 § 116 to 123
Michigan allows driverless & personless cars SBs 995-998
Minnesota
Mississippi allows truck platoons HB 1343
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska allows driverless cars LB 989
Nevada allows truck platoons & driverless cars AB 69
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York in testing phase AB 9508
North Carolina allows truck platoons & driverless cars HB 469
North Dakota in study phase HB 1202
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon in study phase HB 4063
Pennsylvania allows truck platoons HB 1958
Rhode Island
South Carolina allows truck platoons HB 3289
South Dakota
Tennessee allows truck platoons & driverless cars SB 151, 676
Texas allows truck platoons & driverless cars HB 1791, SB 2205
Utah in testing phase SB 56
Vermont in pre-study phase HB 494
Virginia confusing HB 454
Washington in study phase HB 2970
West Virginia
Wisconsin allows truck platoons SB 695
Wyoming

The following countries have driverless car programs in the testing stage: Australia, Canada (Ontario), China, Dubai, EU/UK, and Japan. Singapore allows driverless taxis.

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